HIV therapy has evolved tremendously due to the development of new drugs, new technologies to measure viral response and drug resistance, and an improved understanding of how the virus progresses in the body. Modern highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) suppress the amount of virus circulating in the blood to nearly undetectable levels for long periods, enabling the immune system to rebound, reducing HIV drug resistance and preventing this otherwise fatal disease from progressing. Clinicians have identified that many people on HAART therapies do not fully adhere to the prescribed therapy, and that their level of adherence typically changes over time. This lack of adherence is known to increase the risk of illness and death, but the specifics remain unclear. More information is needed to determine how adherence dynamically affects disease progression and outcomes, so those at higher risk of treatment failure can be identified in advance and helped with their treatment. Dr. Viviane Lima is exploring the relationship between regimen-specific adherence for key HAART therapies and the disease outcomes for patients. She will determine the levels of adherence required at each stage to reduce or prevent a number of disease outcomes: viral rebound, immune cell loss, HIV drug resistance, the emergence of AIDS-related conditions, and death. She hypothesizes that for each disease outcome, there is a distinct, clinically-significant interaction between adherence and type of HAART therapy. Long-term management of HIV/AIDS requires a long-term commitment from patients to adhere to therapy, a high level of expertise among practitioners to deal with complex and rapidly evolving treatments, and the development of clinically meaningful tools to enhance adherence over time and across varied treatments. Lima’s study will provide an evidence base to identify best treatment practices.